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## Four-ring resistance reading（Calculation method of four-ring resistance）：

The first ring and the second ring of the 4-ring resistance respectively represent the first and second effective values of the resistance of the resistor, and the third ring represents the magnification, that is, the number of zeros after the second effective value. The fourth ring represents the error of the resistance.

The color corresponding to the color of the ring: brown 1, red 2, orange 3, yellow 4, green 5, blue 6, purple 7, gray 8, white 9, black 0. Error of the fourth ring: gold: + -5, silver + -10, brown + -1, red + -2, green + -0.5, blue + -0.25, purple + -0.1, white +50 -20.

For example: red yellow orange gold: is 24000 ohms, is 24k. Error 5%
yellow purple black silver: is 47 ohms, error 10%
red yellow brown silver: 240 ohms, error 10%.

 First black brown red orange yellow green orchid purple gray white
 Second black brown red orange yellow green orchid violet gray white
 Third Multiplier black brown red orange yellow green orchid purple gray white
 Third ring for Gold or silver Gold Third ring ×0.1 silver  Third ring ×0.01 Fourth ring error rate gold %5 silver %10 resistance: Ohm Error±: Ohm

Example: 4-ring resistance In order: red, yellow, red, gold, read as 2700Ω = 2.7K, the error is±5%
Example: 4-ring resistance In order: orange white red silver read as 3900Ω=3.9K error is±10%
Example: 4-ring resistance In order: orange orange gold and silver, where orange orange is 33 multiplied by 10-1=3.9Ω the error is±10%
Example: 4-ring resistance In order: yellow purple silver and silver, yellow and purple is 47 multiplied by 10-2=0.47Ω. the error is±10%
From the above, it is known that reading the third color ring is gold or silver, because it is a negative multiplication, and the resistance value is generally 0.1-9.9 Ω.

Regarding the error rate: the number of error rates of the software must be multiplied by 100. If the calculated error is 0.02, multiply by 100=2%.