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What is microcontroller unit

Microcontroller Unit (MCU), also known as Single Chip Microcomputer or MCU, is to reduce the frequency and specifications of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) appropriately and reduce the memory , Counter (Timer), USB, A / D conversion, UART, PLC, DMA and other peripheral interfaces,and even the LCD drive circuit are integrated on a single chip to form a chip-level computer for different combinations of control for different applications. MCUs can be found in mobile phones, PC peripherals, remote controls, automotive electronics, industrial stepper motors, and robotic arm controls.


Main Classification

Classified by use: Universal type: Provide all the resources (ROM, RAM, I / O, EPROM) that can be developed to the user.Special type: Its hardware and instructions are designed according to a specific purpose, such as the recorder movement controller, printer controller, motor controller, etc.
Classified by the number of data bits processed by its basic operation:
According to the width of the bus or data register, the microcontroller is divided into 1-bit, 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and even 64-bit microcontrollers. Most 4-digit MCUs are used in calculators, car meters, car anti-theft devices, pagers, wireless phones, CD players, LCD drive controllers, LCD game consoles, children's toys, scales, chargers, tire pressure meters , Temperature and humidity meter, remote control and point-and-shoot camera; most of the 8-bit MCUs are used in electricity meters, motor controllers, electric toy machines, inverter air conditioners, pagers, fax machines, caller ID, call recorders , CRT monitor, keyboard and USB; 8-bit and 16-bit microcontrollers are mainly used in general control fields, generally do not use operating systems, most of 16-bit MCUs are used in mobile phones, digital cameras and camcorders; Most 32-bit MCUs are used in Modem, GPS, PDA, HPC, STB, Hub, Bridge, Router, Workstation, ISDN phone, laser printer and color fax machine; 32-bit is used for network processing, multimedia processing and other complex processing , Generally use an embedded operating system. Most of the 64-bit MCUs are used in high-end workstations, multimedia interactive systems, advanced TV game instruments (such as SEGA's Dreamcast and Nintendo's GameBoy) and advanced terminals.


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