What is the technical architecture of the 4 major CPU processors?
Published time: 2020-02-17 16:55:44
RISC(lean instruction set computer) is a type of microprocessor that executes fewer types of computer instructions. It originated from the MIPS mainframe (RISC machine) in the 1980s. The microprocessors used in RISC machines are collectively referred to as RISC processors.As a result, it can perform operations at a faster rate (millions more instructions per second, or MIPS).Because computers require additional transistors and circuit components to execute each instruction type, the larger the instruction set, the more complex the microprocessor and the slower the operation.
Performance characteristics 1: after the instruction set is simplified, pipeline and common instructions can be executed with hardware;
Performance characteristics two: a large number of registers, so that most of the instruction operations are carried out between registers, improve the processing speed;
Performance characteristics three: the use of cache - host - external memory three-level storage structure, so that the fetch and memory instructions are executed separately, so that the processor can complete as much work as possible, and not slow down the processing speed due to access from memory information.
Among them, ARM/MIPS/PowerPC are based on the architecture of compact instruction set machine processor.
X86 is an architecture based on a complex instruction set, and Atom is a simplified version of the X86 or X86 instruction set.
According to various news, Android is now supporting a variety of processors:
ARM+Android is the first to develop and improve the support, mainly in the mobile phone market, netbook, smart market;
X86+Android has a relatively complete development.A netbook with atom+Android
Atom+Android and Atom+ Windows 7.
MIPS+Android is currently in the process of transplantation and improvement;
Powpc+Android is currently in the process of porting and improving.
ARM series processor
The ARM architecture, formerly known as the Advanced RISC Machine (formerly known as Acorn RISC Machine), is a 32-bit reduced instruction set (RISC) processor architecture that is widely used in many embedded system designs.Due to its energy-saving characteristics, ARM processors are very suitable for the field of mobile communication, in line with its main design goal of low power consumption characteristics.
Today, the ARM family accounts for 75 percent of all 32-bit embedded processors, making it one of the most common 32-bit architectures in the world.ARM processors can be found in a wide range of consumer electronics, from portable devices (pdas, mobile phones, multimedia players, handheld video games, and computers) to computer peripherals (hard drives, desktop routers) and even military installations such as missile-borne computers.There are a number of arm-based spin-offs, including Marvell's XScale architecture and Texas instruments' OMAP range.
Advantages: low price;Low energy consumption.
ARM licensing: ARM does not manufacture or sell cpus on its own designs, but licenses the processor architecture to interested vendors.
Manufacturer: TI /Samsung /Freescale /Marvell /Nvidia
ARM offers a variety of licensing terms, including pricing and distribution.For licensees, ARM provides an integrated hardware description of the ARM kernel, including complete software development tools (compiler, debugger, SDK), and the right to sell silicon chips on arm-embedded cpus.For fabless licensees who want to integrate the ARM kernel into their own chip designs, it is usually just a production-ready IP Core certification.
For these customers, ARM releases the selected gate circuitry of ARM's core, along with abstract simulation models and test programs, to assist in design integration and validation.More customers, including integrated component manufacturers (IDM) and wafer manufacturers, chose synthetic RTL(memory transfer level, such as Verilog) forms to acquire processor intellectual property (IP).
With an integrable RTL, the client has the ability to optimize and enhance the architecture.This approach allows the designer to achieve additional design objectives (such as high oscillation frequency, low energy consumption, instruction set extension, etc.) without being constrained by unchangeable circuit diagrams.Although ARM does not grant licensees the right to resell the ARM architecture itself, licensees are free to sell products (such as chip components, evaluation boards, complete systems, etc.).
Commercial fabs are a special case because they not only grant the ability to sell finished silicon containing the ARM kernel, but also generally reserve the right to reproduce the ARM kernel for other customers.
X86 series /Atom processors
The xx86 or 80x86 is a generic name for a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel.
The x86 architecture is CISC(Complex Instruction Set Computer) which is important for variable Instruction length.
The Intel Atom(Atom, Silverthorne) is a family of Intel ultra-low voltage processors.The processor is made using a 45-nanometer process that integrates 47 million transistors.L2 cache is 512KB, supports SSE3 instruction set, and VT virtualization technology (some models).
Currently, there are six models in the Atom processor family, all of which belong to the Z500 series.They are Z500, Z510, Z520, Z530, Z540 and Z550.The lowest end of the Z500 kernel is 800MHz, while the FSB is 400MHz.The Z550, the fastest, has a core frequency of 2.0GHz and an FSB of 533MHz.
Since the Z520, all processors have supported hyperthreading, but with less than a 10 percent increase in power consumption.The dual-core version is N series, still using 945GC chipset.The dual-kernel version will still support hyperthreading, so the system will display four logical processors.The two kernels in this release are not designed locally, but simply encapsulate the two single kernels.
MIPS series processor
MIPS is a popular RISC processor in the world.MIPS stands for "microprocessors without interlocked pipeline stages" (" microprocessors without interlocked piped stages "), which works by using software to avoid data-related problems in the pipeline.
It was first developed in the early 1980s by a team led by professor Hennessy of Stanford university.MIPS 'R series are microprocessors for RISC industrial products developed on this basis.These series of products are used by many computer companies to compose workstations and computer systems.
MIPS technology corporation is a famous American chip design company, which USES the lean instruction system computing structure (RISC) to design chips.Compared with CISC adopted by Intel, RISC has the advantages of simpler design and shorter design cycle, and can apply more advanced technologies to develop faster next-generation processors.
MIPS is one of the first commercial RISC architecture chips to emerge. The new architecture integrates all the original MIPS instruction sets and adds many more powerful functions.MIPS only designs the CPU itself, and then licenses the design to the customer so that the customer can build a high-performance CPU.
In 1984, MIPS computer company was founded to design RISC processors;
The R2000 processor was introduced in 1986.
In 1992, SGI acquired MIPS computer.
The R3000 processor was introduced in 1988.
Launched the first 64-bit commercial microcontroller R4000 in 1991;Later models such as R8000(1994), R10000(1996) and R12000(1997) were introduced.
In 1998, MIPS separated from SGI and became MIPS technology company.Subsequently, MIPS changed its strategy to focus on embedded systems;1998 -MIPS technology shares are listed on the nasdaq stock exchange.
In 1999, MIPS released the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architecture standards, which laid the foundation for the future development of MIPS processors.The new architecture integrates all of the original NIPS instruction sets and adds many more powerful features.MIPS has successively developed high performance, low power consumption 32-bit processor core MIPS324Kc and high performance 64-bit processor core MIPS64 5Kc.
In 2000, MIPS released a version for the MIPS32 4Kc and a 64-bit MIPS 64 20Kc processor core.
August 16, 2007 -MIPS technology announces that the loongson CPU of the institute of computer science, Chinese academy of sciences, has been granted all patents, bus and instruction sets for its processor IP.
December 20, 2007 -MIPS technology announces that it has licensed the "MIPS32 24KEc Pro", a customizable system-on-chip (SoC) core designed for advanced multimedia.
PowerPC series processors
The PowerPC is a central processing unit (CPU) with a lean instruction set (RISC) architecture, the basic design of which is derived from IBM's IBM PowerPC 601 microprocessor POWER architecture.In the 1990s, IBM(IBM), Apple(Apple), and Motorola(Motorola) successfully developed PowerPC chips and built powerpc-based multi-processor computers.The PowerPC architecture is characterized by scalability, convenience and flexibility.
PowerPC processors have a wide range of implementations, ranging from high-end server cpus like the Power4 to the embedded CPU market (nintendo Gamecube USES PowerPC).
Real-time DSP architecture
DSP is a kind of microprocessor, which has a very high processing speed, because the application of this kind of processor requires a high Real Time.For example, if the processing speed is not fast enough, you can only wait for the other party to stop talking before the other party can talk.If both parties are talking at the same time, the connection can only be closed because of insufficient digital signal processing speed.Before the advent of DSP, digital signal processing could only be done by MPU(microprocessor).However, the lower processing speed of MPU cannot meet the requirement of high-speed real-time.
Therefore, it was not until the 1970s that the theory and algorithm basis of DSP was proposed.At that time, DSP only remained in the textbooks. Even the developed DSP system was composed of discrete components, and its application fields were only limited to the military and aerospace sectors.
In the 1990s, DSP developed the fastest, and the fourth and fifth generation of DSP devices appeared successively.Now, DSP belongs to the fifth generation of products. Compared with the fourth generation, DSP core and peripheral components are integrated into a single chip.This kind of highly integrated DSP chip not only displays its skill in communication and computer field, but also gradually penetrates into People's Daily consumption field.Tag: processors