Understanding TP5100 Lithium Battery Charging Module: A Comprehensive Guide
Update Time: 2023-11-29 13:43:20
Lithium batteries have become a staple in our modern lives, powering everything from smartphones to electric vehicles. Ensuring these batteries charge efficiently and safely is crucial, and that's where the TP5100 Lithium Battery Charging Module comes into play. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the workings and applications of the TP5100 module, demystifying its role in lithium battery charging.
What is TP5100?
The TP5100 is a lithium battery charge management chip designed for single-cell 4.2V batteries, featuring a dual-switch buck circuit capable of handling 8.4V. Its compact QFN16 package and straightforward external circuit make it an excellent choice for a wide range of applications, including portable devices and those requiring high-current charging management. Moreover, the TP5100 incorporates comprehensive safety features such as input overcurrent protection, under-voltage protection, over-temperature monitoring, and short-circuit protection.
This chip boasts a broad input voltage range from 5V to 18V and supports dual battery trickle charging, pre-charge, constant current, and constant voltage phases. The pre-charge and trickle charge currents can be adjusted externally using resistors, and the TP5100 accommodates a maximum charge current of 2A. With a switching mode operating at 400kHz, it facilitates the use of smaller external components while effectively managing heat dissipation. The TP5100 features integrated power PMOSFETs and reverse-blocking circuitry, eliminating the need for external protection components like reverse-blocking Schottky diodes.
TP5100 Module Pin Description
Pin Name Pin Description VIN+ Input voltage pin (20V max.) GND Input ground reference BAT+ Battery positive output GND Battery negative CHARGING LED output to indicate charging GND LED ground reference CHARGED LED output to indicate battery charged
VIN (Pins 1, 4, 5, 16): Positive input for the supply voltage. The voltage at this pin powers the internal circuitry, with a voltage range of 5V to 18V. It is bypassed by a 10uF and 0.1uF capacitor. When the voltage difference between VIN and VRBATR drops below 30mV, the TP5100 enters standby mode, reducing IRBATR to 1μA.
LX (Pins 2, 3): Connection point for the drain of the internal PMOSFET power transistor. LX is connected to an external inductor, serving as the input for the battery charging current.
PWR_ON- (Pin 6): Power switching control pin. When the chip is connected to the power source, PWR_ON- is pulled low by an internal switch, turning on the PMOS. When the chip is not connected to the power source, PWR_ON- is pulled high to the battery voltage by an internal switch, turning off the PMOS. This pin can be used for power supply switching or to detect if the power-on establishment is normal.
GND (Pin 7): Power supply ground.
VS (Pin 8): Positive input for output current detection.
BAT (Pin 9): Battery voltage detection terminal. Connect the positive terminal of the battery to this pin.
VREG (Pin 10): Internal power supply. VREG is an internal power source with an external 0.1uF bypass capacitor to ground, capable of driving up to 5mA.
TS (Pin 11): Battery temperature detection input. Connect the TS pin to the output of the battery's NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient thermistor) sensor. If the voltage at TS is less than 45% of VREG or greater than 80% of VREG, it indicates that the battery temperature is too low or too high, leading to a charging pause. If TS is directly connected to GND, the battery temperature detection function is disabled, while other charging functions remain normal.
RTRICK (Pin 12): Trickle pre-charge current setting terminal. Grounding the RTRICK pin sets the pre-charge current to 10% of the set constant current, which an external resistor can adjust. If RTRICK is left unconnected, the pre-charge current equals the constant current.
CS (Pin 13): Lithium-ion status chip select input. A high input level (VREG) at the CS pin places the TP5100 in cutoff voltage status for lithium-ion battery charging at 8.4V. Leaving CS unconnected sets the TP5100 to cutoff voltage status at 4.2V for lithium-ion batteries. A low input level puts the TP5100 in standby mode. CS can be controlled by TTL or CMOS logic levels.
STDBY (Pin 14): Green light battery charge completion indicator. When the battery charging is complete, STDBY is pulled low by an internal switch, indicating the charging end. In addition, the STDBY pin remains in a high-impedance state.
CHRG (Pin 15): Red light charging in progress status indicator. When the charger actively charges the battery, CHRG is pulled low by an internal switch, signifying that charging is in progress. Otherwise, CHRG remains in a high-impedance state.
Suitable for dual 8.4V or single 4.2V lithium rechargeable batteries
Adjustable charge current from 0.1A to 2A
Customizable precharge current from 10% to 100%
Wide operating voltage range, up to 18V
Equipped with red and green LEDs to indicate charge status
Comprehensive chip protection, including temperature, overcurrent, under-voltage, and battery temperature protection
Built-in safeguards against reverse battery connection and short circuits
Operates at a frequency of 400KHz with a minimum usable inductance of 20uH and more.
Compatible with dual-cell 8.4V or single-cell 4.2V batteries
Accepts input voltage within the range of 5V to 15V
Operates at a switching frequency of 400kHz
Eliminates the need for an external anti-backflow Schottky diode
LED Status Indicators:
-Red LED: Indicates charging of the battery
-Blue LED: Represents standby mode
-Flashing Red/Blue: Suggests the absence of a battery capacitor
-Both Red and Blue LEDs off: Occurs in cases of very low/high VIN or high-temperature shutdown
Features battery temperature protection
Offers protection against battery reverse connection and short circuits
Withstands a maximum junction temperature of 120°C
Suitable for operation within a wide environmental temperature range, from -40°C to 85°C.
TP5100 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Static input supply voltage (VIN): 20V
BAT (Battery Voltage): -8.4V to 20V
BAT Short circuit duration: Continuous
Maximum junction temperature: 120°C
Working temperature range: -40°C to 85°C
Storage Temperature Range: -65°C to 125°C
Lead Temperature (during 10-second welding): 260°C
Working Principle of TP5100
The TP5100 is a high-current charging chip explicitly designed for dual-cell 8.4V or single-cell 4.2V lithium-ion batteries. It utilizes internal power transistors to perform trickle charging, constant current charging, and constant voltage charging on the battery. The charging current can be programmed using external resistors, with a maximum continuous charging current of up to 2A, without an additional reverse-blocking diode.
The TP5100 includes two open-drain status indication output pins: the charging status indicator CHRG and the battery full status indicator STDBY. The chip's internal power management circuitry automatically reduces the charging current when the chip's junction temperature exceeds 145°C. This feature allows users to maximize the chip's power handling capabilities without worrying about chip overheating and potential damage to the chip or external components.
Charging begins when the input voltage exceeds the chip's startup threshold voltage, and the chip enables input goes high (VREG) or is left floating. The CHRG pin outputs a low level, indicating that charging is progressing. Suppose the voltage of the dual-cell lithium-ion battery falls below 5.8V (or the single-cell lithium-ion battery falls below 2.9V). In that case, the charger applies a small current for trickle pre-charging (the pre-charge current is adjustable via an external resistor).
The resistance between the VS and VBAT pins determines the constant current charging current. As the voltage of the dual-cell lithium-ion battery approaches 8.4V (or the single-cell lithium-ion battery approaches 4.2V), the charging current gradually decreases, and the TP5100 enters the constant voltage charging mode. When the charging current reduces to the cutoff current, the charging cycle ends. The CHRG pin enters a high-impedance state, and the STDBY pin outputs a low level. When the battery voltage drops to the recharge threshold (8.1V for dual-cell lithium-ion batteries or 4.05V for single-cell lithium-ion batteries), a new charging cycle automatically begins.
The chip's internal high-precision voltage reference source, error amplifier, and resistor divider network ensure the accuracy of the battery's cutoff voltage within ±1%, meeting the requirements of lithium-ion battery charging. When the input voltage is removed or drops below the battery voltage, the charger enters a low-power shutdown mode without needing an external reverse-blocking diode, with battery leakage from the chip of approximately 1uA.
Where to use TP5100?
Here list some key TP5100 applications:
Portable electronic equipment and various chargers
Smartphones, PDAs, and mobile cellular phones
MP4 and MP5 players
Handheld Radios (Walkie-Talkies)
How to use TP5100?
The TP5100 provides a broad input voltage range from 5V to 18V. It supports dual-battery trickle charging during pre-charge, offers a three-phase charging process with constant current and constant voltage, allows for pre-charge current adjustment via an external resistor, and boasts a maximum charge current of 2A.
TP5100 Equivalents & Alternatives
What is the difference between TP5100 and TP4056?
Both the TP5100 and TP4056 are adept charging and protection modules, each with its strengths. The TP5100 module excels in power and functionality, whereas the TP4056 module boasts cost-effectiveness and widespread availability.
Download the TP5100 module datasheet.
TP5100 Dimensions Outline
- What is the use of the TP5100 charging module?
The TP5100 is highly suitable for applications involving portable equipment that require efficient management of high-current charging.
- What is the current set of TP5100?
TP5100 has a Maximum charging current of 2A.
- What is the input voltage of the TP5100 module?
- How many batteries can TP5100?
It is possible to parallelly connect two lithium battery cells, creating a single-cell battery with double the individual cell's capacity. However, we advise against connecting more than two cells to this module simultaneously.
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