The basic knowledge and basic working principle of single chip microcomputer
Published time: 2020-03-30 12:16:36
Chip before no development, single-chip computer only has the strong function of very large scale integrated circuit, if giving it a particular program, it is a minimum, complete a microcomputer control system, it has to do with personal computer (PC) the distinction that having essence, MCU application belongs to the chip level, requires the user to understand the structure of the single-chip microcomputer and command system, and other integrated circuit application technology and system needs the theory and design technology, in this particular chip design application, so that the chip has the specific function.
Different single chip microcomputer has different hardware characteristics and software characteristics, that is, their technical characteristics are not the same, hardware characteristics depend on the internal structure of the single chip microcomputer chip, the user to use a single chip microcomputer, must know whether the type of product to meet the needs of the function and application system required characteristics.The technical characteristics here include functional characteristics, control characteristics and electrical characteristics, etc., which need to be obtained from the manufacturer's technical manual.Software characteristics refers to the command system characteristics and development support environment, command characteristics that we are familiar with the single-chip addressing, data processing and logic processing, input and output characteristics and power requirements.Development support environments include compatibility and portability of instructions, support for software (including software resources to support developing applications), and hardware resources.It is necessary to master the structural and technical characteristics of a single chip microcomputer to develop its own application system.
Single-chip microcomputer control system to replace previous use of complex electronic circuits or digital circuit of control system, can control software to realize, and can realize the intellectualized, now ubiquitous single-chip microcomputer control category, such as communication products, household appliances, smart instrumentation, process control and special control device and so on, single-chip computer is finding wider and wider application fields.Admittedly, the significance of the application of single chip microcomputer is not limited to its application scope or the economic benefits brought by it, more importantly, it has fundamentally changed the traditional control methods and design ideas.It is a revolution in control technology and an important milestone.
The basic working principle of single chip microcomputer
Single-chip microcomputer automatically give it the task of process, also is the process of single-chip computer executable program, namely lines to perform the process of instruction, the so-called instruction is request microcontroller to perform various operations in the form of the command to write it down, it is the designer gives its instruction system is determined, an instruction corresponds to a basic operation;Single-chip microcomputer can execute all the instructions, is the single-chip instruction system, different types of single-chip microcomputer, its instruction system is different.
MCU composition, working principle, classification, characteristics and development trend for the single-chip computer can automatically complete a particular task, must take the problem to be solved into a series of instructions (these instructions must be selected single chip microcomputer to identify and implement instruction), the collection of a series of instructions becomes program, program needs to advance in which has the function of storage components - memory.Memory by many storage unit (the smallest storage unit), like big buildings there are many rooms, instructions are stored in these units, units of instruction fetch and carry just as large buildings of every room is assigned to only one room number, each storage unit must be assigned to the only address, the address is touted as a storage unit, such as long as know the address of the storage unit, you can find the storage unit, one of the storage instructions can be removed, and then executed.
Program is usually executed sequentially, one is sequential storage of the instructions of the program, microcontroller when performing procedures need to be able to remove the these command lines and execution, must have a part to track orders where the address, this part is the program counter (PC) (included in the CPU), when start executing the program, to the PC assigned to the first instruction in the program's address, and then each command to execute, the contents of the PC in automatically increases, the increase is decided by this instruction length, may be 1, 2, or 3, to point to the starting address of the next instruction, guarantee the instruction execution sequence.Tag: single chip