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Home > Other > LM324 Quad OP-AMP IC Pinout, Circuit, Datasheet, and Uses

LM324 Quad OP-AMP IC Pinout, Circuit, Datasheet, and Uses

Update Time: 2023-12-01 13:36:46

Contents

Operational amplifiers serve as uncomplicated electronic circuits capable of amplifying a weak signal to a higher amplitude. They find applications in various devices like home entertainment systems, megaphones, speakers, and microphones. Op-amps typically operate with feedback components, determining the amplifier's function based on different feedback configurations—resistive, capacitive, or a combination of both.


The LM324 operational amplifier IC can function as a regular comparator, featuring four independent op-amps internally. Designed for low power, wide bandwidth, and high stability, this IC is suitable for operation with a single power supply across a broad voltage range. Its operating voltages range from 3.0 V for low to 32 V for high. The common mode input range includes the negative voltage supply, eliminating the need for external biasing components in many applications. The output voltage range also encompasses the negative voltage supply. This article delves into the LM324 pinout, circuit, datasheet, and more details. Explore where and how to use it.


What is LM324 Quad OP-AMP IC?


The LM324 is an integrated Quad op-amp IC featuring four op-amps powered by a shared power supply. With 14 pins, the LM324 IC encompasses four independent op-amps within a single package. These electronic voltage amplifiers offer high gain, featuring a differential input and a single output. The voltage difference between the input terminals of the IC is minimal compared to the output voltage. Operating with a single power supply, these comparators eliminate the need for a dual supply. The versatile applications of these ICs include uses as comparators, oscillators, amplifiers, rectifiers, and more, allowing for straightforward implementation of various electronic functions.


LM324 IC.png


LM324 Pinout

LM324 Pinout.png

LM324 Pin Diagram


Pin Configuration



Pin No.Pin NameDescription
1OUTPUT1The output of Op-Amp 1
2INPUT1-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 1
3INPUT1+Non-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 1
4VCCPositive Supply Voltage
5INPUT2+Non-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 2
6INPUT2-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 2
7OUTPUT2The output of Op-Amp 2
8OUTPUT3The output of Op-Amp 3
9INPUT3-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 3
10INPUT3+Non-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 3
11VEE, GNDGround or Negative Supply Voltage
12INPUT4+Non-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 4
13INPUT4-Inverting Input of Op-Amp 4
14OUTPUT4

The output of Op-Amp 4


Feature & Specifications


  • Wide Power Supply Range:

  1. Single supply – 3V to 32V

  2. Dual supply – ±1.5V to ±16V

  • Low Power Supply Current (Minimum): 0.8 milliamperes.

  • Normal Output Current for Each Op-Amp (at Pin-Output to Ground): 20 milliamperes typical (10 mA minimum).

  • Output Current from Positive Supply to Output Pin: 8 milliamperes typical (5 mA minimum).

  • Maximum Voltage Gain (Typical): 100,000. Gain can be set by configuring feedback resistors between the output pin and inverting (-) input.

  • Wide Bandwidth: 1 MHz

  • Output Voltage Swing Ranges from 0V to V+ & − 1.5V

  • Differential Input Voltage Range Equivalent to the Voltage Power Supply.

  • Basically, Independent for Supply Voltage

  • Low Supply Current: 700uA

  • Single Supply for Four Op-Amp Operations Enables Reliable Operation

  • Operating Ambient Temperature: 0˚C to 70˚C

  • Soldering Pin Temperature: 260 ˚C (for 10 seconds – prescribed)

  • Integrated with Four Op-Amps in a Single Package


LM324 IC Ratings


The power ratings of the LM324 IC are as follows:


  • Input voltage range: -0.3 to 32 V

  • Differential input voltage: 32 V

  • Input current: 50 mA

  • Power dissipation: 1130 mW

  • Storage temperature range: -65 to 150 °C

  • Supply voltage: 32 V


LM324 Circuits Projects


The LM324 offers versatility in circuit applications, allowing various projects to be constructed. Let's explore some of these projects and provide the necessary information for their implementation.


LM324 Audio Amp


Here, we present a bass booster circuit to create a low-pass filter for input audio. This filter emphasizes low-frequency inputs while attenuating higher frequencies.


Remarkably, you can implement this circuit using an LM324. However, only 2 of the LM324's op-amps are required.


To assemble this circuit, refer to the provided schematics. Input should be applied to the circuit through pin two using a 47k resistor. Connect another 47k resistor between pins one and two.


If you are still determining the functions of these pins, consult the pinout diagram above for clarification. Additionally, ensure that pin four is linked to a +9V power source and pin eleven is connected to a -9V supply.


For optimal performance, we recommend employing a dual supply for this circuit. Why? Because to adjust the frequency level with RV1 (100K), all outputs must be connected to the amplifier's input.


LM324 Audio Amp circuit diagram.png


Cricket Buzzer Generator Circuit using LM324


Traditional buzzer sounds can become monotonous. Fortunately, you can inject excitement into your projects with the LM321 circuit. This particular circuit can transform ordinary buzzer sounds into the delightful chirping of crickets.


The LM324 op-amp generates cricket sound effects in this setup, channelling them through a buzzer. Notably, this circuit maximizes three of the four op-amps on the LM324 chip, functioning as an adept frequency generator.


Here's a breakdown of its functionality.


Op-amp 1/1 produces a tone within the frequency range of about 1400Hz to 15kHz. Subsequently, op-amp 1/2 introduces frequencies up to 50Hz, exerting control over op-amp 1/1. This process results in the creation of a tone reminiscent of crickets. To conclude, op-amp 1/3 generates frequencies of about 2.2Hz, regulating op-amp 1/1 and bringing the cricket-like tone to a halt.


Cricket Buzzer Generator Circuit Diagram.png


LM324 Amplifier Circuit


The LM324 IC is an ideal choice for amplification projects, offering the flexibility to enhance the output current of your LM324.


When dealing with a low output current from your LM324, it can pose challenges in utilizing the circuit output effectively. To address this, leveraging the op-amp allows you to boost the output current to a maximum of 85mA.


The versatility of the LM324 extends to various applications, spanning industrial, commercial, and military domains. Consequently, an amplified output current becomes imperative when undertaking projects in these sectors.


Equipped with four op-amps, each delivering an output current ranging between 20-40 mA, the LM324 allows for parallel utilization of three op-amps, resulting in an increased output current of 85 mA. This configuration not only enhances output strength but also provides robust surge protection.


LM324 Amplifier Circuit Diagram.png


Logic Digital Tester


The LM324 allows the possibility to construct various projects, including a digital logic tester. This particular circuit employs a potentiometer to fine-tune the logic levels, finely offering distinct thresholds.


Using LEDs as visual indicators, the circuit employs LED1 (Green) to represent a high level, LED2 (Yellow) for a medium level, and LED3 (Red) for a low level.


Logic Digital Tester Circuit Diagram.png


1.5v Battery Tester


Here is an additional project illustration employing the LM324 as a voltage checker. This circuit can measure the voltage of any 1.5V AA or AAA battery. The circuit features an LED display for clear and straightforward voltage readings. Moreover, it supports measurements for both regular and rechargeable batteries.


1.5v Battery Tester Circuit Diagram.png


Op-amp LED Flasher


This circuit employs the LM324 to construct a dual-LED flasher circuit. It alternates between two LEDs (red and green) and completes one cycle every second.


Op-amp LED Flasher Circuit Diagram.png


LM324 Explanation with Example


Consider a scenario with a motor operating under variable load conditions. As the load increases, the current raises the motor's temperature. In such cases, we aim to turn off the system if the temperature surpasses the rated limit. This is where the operational amplifier (op-amp) functions as a positive comparator, distinguishing it from a standard comparator. A thermistor, whose resistance varies with temperature, plays a crucial role in this setup.


Below is a straightforward circuit connection designed to sense temperature and regulate a system.


Sense-temperature-and-control-a-system-working-using-LM324_0.png


At a temperature of 25˚C, with RT (thermistor resistance) at 10kὨ, the inverting input is at 1.32V, and the non-inverting input is at 2.36V. Consequently, the HIGH output allows it to drive a motor ON through a transistor or relay.


Sense-temperature-and-control-a-system-in-action-using-LM324_0.png


At a temperature above 70˚C, with RT reduced to 3kὨ, the inverting input is 1.32V, and the non-inverting input is 1.06V. As a result, the output is LOW, enabling it to drive a motor OFF through a transistor or relay.


Sense-temperature-and-control-a-system-using-LM324_0.png


If temperature monitoring is required at multiple motor positions, the LM324 can be utilized in the following configuration. The illustration below demonstrates the orientation for two temperature-sensing resistors, RT1 and RT2.


Sense-temperature-and-control-a-system-using-LM324-IC_0.png


Supply Connection:


  • Single Supply Connection


LM324-single-supply-connection.png


  • Dual Supply Connection


LM324-Dual-supply-connection.png


The above configurations depict both single and dual supply connections.


Equivalents & Alternatives


LM324 Equivalents


LM324 Equivalents include LM3900, LMC660, LM339, LT014, LM2900, LM324A, LM324E, LM324-N, LM324W.


LM324 Alternatives


LM324 Alternatives include AD620, LM4871, LM709, LM201.


LM324 Applications


  • Transducer Amplifiers

  • Filter circuits

  • Voltage followers

  • Integrator

  • Differentiator

  • Summer

  • Adder

  • Oscillators

  • Rectifiers

  • DC gain blocks

  • Comparators (Loop control and regulation)


LM324 Package


The LM324 IC is offered in four distinct packages, each with its dimensions:


  • TSSOP package: 5 x 4.4 mm

  • SOIC package: 8.65 x 3.91 mm

  • CDIP package: 19.56 x 6.67 mm

  • PDIP package: 19.177 x 6.35 mm


2D-model


LM324-Quad-OP-amp-IC-2D-model.png

LM324-Quad-OP-amp-IC-2D-model-dimension.png


Where and How to Use LM324?


The LM324 is versatile in power supply options, accommodating both single and dual power sources. The key pins involved are designated as pins ④ and ⑪, facilitating operation with either a single supply or dual supplies, activating all four OP-AMPs.


In the case of the 1st OP-AMP, the inverting input connects to pin ②, while the non-inverting input is linked to pin ③. The output of the initial OP-AMP is accessible at pin ①.


Moving on to the 2nd OP-AMP, the inverting input connects to pin ⑥, and the non-inverting input is situated at pin ⑤. The output of the second OP-AMP is accessible at pin ⑦.


Similarly, for the 3rd OP-AMP, the inverting input is applied at pin ⑨, and the non-inverting input at pin ⑩, with the output available at pin ⑧.


For the 4th OP-AMP, the inverting input is linked to pin ⑬, while the non-inverting input is at pin ⑫. The output of the fourth OP-AMP is attainable at pin ⑭.




What is the difference between LM324 and LM358?


LM358-VS-LM324.png


The primary distinctions in the specifications pertain to power dissipation. Specifically, the LM358 is housed in a more compact DIP-8 package than the DIP-14 package of the LM324. Consequently, the LM324 has a higher capacity for power dissipation than the LM358. This variation in package size may contribute to the observed greater drift in offset voltage for the LM324. In addition, there are some differences in specifications, features, inside circuitry, absolute maximum ratings, electrical characteristics, applications, etc., between LM324 and LM358.


Read More: LM324 vs LM358


LM324 Datasheet


Download LM324 Datasheet PDF.


Conclusion


In summary, this provides an overview of the LM324 IC. Based on the information presented, employing this IC offers several advantages. It functions as an operational amplifier and a comparator, serving as an electronic voltage amplifier with substantial gain. Should there be any uncertainties or inquiries about this topic or any technical details, please feel free to reach out by leaving a comment in the section below.


Read More


Previous: Potentiometer: Pinout, Symbol, Wiring, and Working

Next: Exploring TL072 OP-AMP IC Pinout, Datasheet, Where & How to Use It

FAQ

  • What is the function of LM324?
  • The LM324 circuit serves as an operational amplifier suitable for various circuit applications. It offers a wide power supply range, low static power consumption, and compatibility with a single power supply.

  • What is the function of LM324?
  • The LM324 circuit serves as an operational amplifier suitable for various circuit applications. It offers a wide power supply range, low static power consumption, and compatibility with a single power supply.

  • What is the maximum output current of LM324?
  • The maximum output current is around 40 mA, regardless of the value of VCC.

  • Can LM324 be used as a comparator?
  • The LM324 operational amplifier IC can function as a comparator.

  • Can I use LM358 instead of LM324?
  • In practical terms, the amplifiers within the LM358 and LM324 are identical. The LM358 is half of an LM324. The only distinctions between the two lie in the number of amplifiers per package and the power dissipation capability.

  • What is the slew rate of the LM324 op amp?
  • 500 mV/us.

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