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Home > Technology List > Intel 14nm process continues to improve in performance and power consu

Intel 14nm process continues to improve in performance and power consumption

Published time: 2019-04-20

In 1978, Intel introduced the first CPU, 8086. It used a process of 3 m(3000nm) to produce only 29,000 transistors with a working frequency of only 5MHz.

Now, the single chip CPU with the largest number of transistors should be Intel's 28-core skylake-sp Xeon processor, which has more than 8 billion transistors, and the highest frequency is Core i9-9900k, with the maximum intercore frequency up to 5GHz, all of which are produced by Intel's 14nm process.


Intel 14nm process continues to improve in performance and power consumption

CPU production needs through seven processes, respectively is: silicon purification, wafer cutting, photocopy, etching, repetition, layered, packaging, testing, and the etching process of CPU production is an important work, is also a start technology, in simple terms is to use laser etching in the process of silicon wafer manufacturing transistors, etching of the process is completed by light, so the wavelength of light used for etching is the key to improve the technology, it affects the smallest size on the silicon wafer etching, namely line width.

Now the semiconductor process said how much nm process is actually refers to the line width, which is the width of the most basic functional unit gate circuit on the chip, because in fact the width of the line between the gate circuit width is the same as the width of the gate circuit, so the line width can describe the manufacturing process.Shrinking the wire-width means that transistors can be made smaller and denser, and smaller wafers can be used for the same chip complexity, reducing costs.

Another important advantage of the more advanced semiconductor manufacturing process is that it can increase the working frequency. By reducing the spacing between components, the capacitance between transistors will also be reduced, and the switching frequency of transistors will be increased, thus increasing the working frequency of the whole chip.

In addition, the smaller size of transistors will reduce their internal resistance, and the required conduction voltage will be reduced, which means that the working voltage of the CPU will be reduced. Therefore, we can see that the voltage of each new CPU core is lower than that of the previous generation.In addition, the dynamic power loss of the CPU is proportional to the square of the voltage.

In addition, the probability of the same process is also very important. Intel has developed into the third generation since the production of 14nm process in 2015. Intel has been improving the process and continuously improving the performance without increasing the power consumption.

In fact, the current 12nm process used by AMD Ryzen processors is essentially a modified version of GlobalFoundries' 14nm process, which was originally intended to be 14nm+. The transistor density did not improve, but the performance improved, with the highest operating frequency increased by 250MHz and the Vcore decreased by 50mV at the same frequency.

There should be a funny look here, given Intel's expectations of progress in its own semiconductor process years ago

In general, the semiconductor technology is the key to the performance and power consumption of various integrated circuits. The increase in the density of transistors with reduced line widths reduces the cost, followed by the increase in the frequency of transistors with higher performance and lower power consumption.

 

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