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About Hybrid Integrated Circuit

Update Time: 2023-05-11 10:01:05


Basic Concept

Hybrid integrated circuit is an integrated circuit made by combining semiconductor integration process with thin (thick) film process. Hybrid integrated circuit is made on the substrate with film forming method of thick film or thin film components and their interconnection lines, and on the same substrate discrete semiconductor chips, monolithic integrated circuits or micro components mixed assembly, and then additional packaging. Compared with discrete component circuits, hybrid integrated circuits have the characteristics of high assembly density, high reliability and good electrical performance. Compared to monolithic integrated circuits, it is flexible in design, convenient in process, and convenient for multi-variety small batch production; and wide range of component parameters, high precision, good stability, and can withstand higher voltage and higher power.

Circuit Characteristics

A hybrid integrated circuit is a circuit in which the functional parts of all components are concentrated on a single substrate, which can essentially eliminate the auxiliary parts in electronic components and the assembly gaps and solder joints between each component, thus improving the assembly density and reliability of electronic devices. Due to this structural feature, the hybrid integrated circuit can be used as a distributed parameter network, with discrete components network difficult to achieve the electrical performance. Another feature of the hybrid integrated circuit is to change the sequence, thickness, area, shape and properties of the three films of conductors, semiconductors and dielectrics, as well as their lead positions to obtain a passive network with different properties.


Circuit Types

There are two commonly used film-forming techniques for manufacturing hybrid integrated circuits: screen-printed sintering and vacuum-made film. With the former technology to manufacture the film is called thick film, its thickness is generally more than 15 microns, with the latter technology to manufacture the film is called thin film, thickness from a few hundred to a few thousand angstroms. If the passive network of the hybrid integrated circuit is a thick film network, that is, known as a thick film hybrid integrated circuit; if it is a thin film network, it is called a thin film hybrid integrated circuit. In order to meet the requirements of miniaturization and integration of microwave circuits, and microwave hybrid integrated circuits. 

This circuit according to the concentration and distribution of component parameters, and is divided into concentrated parameters and distribution parameters microwave hybrid integrated circuits. Concentrated parameter circuit in the structure and the general thick film hybrid integrated circuit, only in the component size accuracy requirements are higher. The distributed parameter circuit is different, and its passive network is not composed of electronic components distinguishable in appearance, but all by microstrip lines. The dimensional accuracy of the microstrip lines is required to be higher, so the distributed-parameter microwave hybrid integrated circuits are mainly manufactured with thin-film technology.

Basic Process

To facilitate automated production and tight assembly in electronic devices, hybrid integrated circuits are manufactured using standardized insulating substrates. The most commonly used substrates are rectangular glass and ceramic substrates that allow one or several functional circuits to be fabricated on a single substrate. The fabrication process is to create membrane passive components and interconnecting lines on the substrate to form a passive network, and then mount a semiconductor device or semiconductor integrated circuit chip. 

The membrane passive network is manufactured by photolithography and film formation methods. Conductor, semiconductor and dielectric films with various shapes and widths are fabricated on the substrate in a certain process sequence. These film layers are combined with each other to form various electronic components and interconnecting lines. After the entire circuit is made on the substrate, the lead wires are soldered on, and when needed, the circuit is coated with a protective layer and finally sealed with a housing to become a hybrid integrated circuit.


Application Development

The application of hybrid integrated circuits is mainly for analog circuits and microwave circuits, but also for special circuits with higher voltage and higher current. Examples include portable radios, airborne radios, data conversion circuits in electronic computers and microprocessors, and digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters. The application in the microwave field is particularly prominent.


Development Trend

The development trend of hybrid integration technology is:

①Assembly and interconnection of single semiconductor integrated circuits with multilayer wiring and carrier tape soldering technology to achieve secondary integration and make complex multifunctional, high-density large-scale hybrid integrated circuits.

② passive network to a more dense, more sophisticated, more stable development, and the integration of sensitive components in its passive network, the manufacture of integrated sensors.

③Develop high-power, high-voltage, high-temperature resistant hybrid integrated circuits.

④Improve the film-forming technology to make the manufacturing process of thin-film active devices practical.

⑤ Assemble miniature chip leadless components and devices with substrates with interconnection lines to reduce the price of electronic devices and improve their performance.

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  • What are some of the advantages of Hybrid Integrated Circuits?
  • Hybrid Integrated Circuits offer several advantages including the ability to incorporate components that cannot be integrated into a monolithic IC, such as high-value capacitors or high-quality inductors. They also offer better performance for certain types of circuits due to less parasitic capacitance and inductance. Furthermore, they are often used when high reliability is required, such as in military or aerospace applications.
  • How does a Hybrid Integrated Circuit differ from a Monolithic Integrated Circuit?
  • A Hybrid Integrated Circuit is made by attaching individual chips or die onto a substrate and connecting them together, allowing for the combination of various types of components and technologies. On the other hand, a Monolithic Integrated Circuit is made by fabricating all components and their interconnections on a single silicon wafer or chip. This means that all components in a monolithic IC are made from the same material, usually silicon.
  • What are the main components of a Hybrid Integrated Circuit?
  • The main components of a Hybrid Integrated Circuit typically include passive components like resistors, capacitors, and inductors, active components like transistors, diodes, and integrated chips, and a substrate, usually ceramic, on which these components are assembled and interconnected.

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